Road Safety Manual
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11.5 References

AASHTO, (2010), Highway Safety Manual, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, USA.

Asian Development Bank, (2005), Costing of Accidents (10 reports on crash costing from the Asia region). Comprehensive guidance on crash costs.

Austroads (2005), Guide to project evaluation: part 2: project evaluation methodology, by N Rockliffe, S Patrick & D Tsolakis. AGPE02/05, Austroads, Sydney, New South Wales.

Bahar, G, (2011), Estimating the Costs to State Governments Due to Highway-Related Injury and Fatal Crashes, Transportation Research Board, NCHRP, Project 20-24 (068) Final Report

Bergh, T & Petersson, M (2010), ‘Roadside area design: Swedish and Scandinavian experience’, International symposium on highway geometric design, 4th, 2010, Valencia, Spain, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain, paper 14.

Bhalla, K, Diez-Roux, E, Taddia, A, Mendoza, S, & Pereyra, A (2013), The Costs of Road Injuries in Latin America, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington D.C.

Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE), (2012), Evaluation of the national black spot program. Volume 1, BITRE Report 126, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.

DaCoTA (2012), Cost-benefit analysis, Deliverable 4.8d of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA, Brussels

Department for Transport, (2011), Transport Analysis Guide (TAG): Cost benefit analysis, TAG unit 3.5.4 viewed 23 April 2014

Department for Transport, (2013) UK, Road accidents and safety statistics, Accident and casualty costs (RAS60), September 2013

Durdin, P & Janssen, K (2012), SafetyNET: breathing life into road safety analysis, Australasian Road Safety Research Policing Education Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.

Elvik, R, (2007), State-of-the-art approaches to accident blackspot management and safety analysis of road networks. TØI Report 883/2007. Institute of Transport Economics, Norwegian Centre for Transport Research.

Elvik, R, Hoye, A, Vaa, T & Sorensen, M, (2009), The handbook of road safety measures (2nd ed.). Emerald, Bingley, United Kingdom.

EU, (2006), Examples of assessed road safety measures - a short handbook. Output from European Union Rosebud project. Available from

EuroRAP (2013), Development of a Safer Road Corridors Investment Plan World Bank project 1080490: Safer Roads Investment Plan, European Road Assessment Programme, Basingstoke, United Kingdom.

Harwood, D Torbic, D. Richard, K. & Meyer, M, (2010), SafetyAnalyst: Software Tools for Safety Management of Specific Highway Sites. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia.

HEATCO, (2006), Developing Harmonised European Approaches for Transport Costing and Project Assessment, viewed 24 April 2014

Hills, P. J., and Jones-Lee, M. W. (1983) The role of safety and highway investment appraisal for developing countries, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 15, pp. 355-369.

International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP) (2013), Multiple countermeasures, iRAP Methodology Fact Sheet #12.

Jensen, S (2013), Safety effects of converting intersections to roundabouts. Transportation Research Record 2389, 22-29.

Larsson, M, Candappa, N, & Corben, B (2003), Flexible barrier systems along high-speed roads: a lifesaving opportunity, Report 210, Monash University. Accident Research Centre (MUARC), Clayton, Australia.

Mackie, A. (1997) Molasses: Monitoring of local authority safety schemes, County Surveyor's Society/Transport Research Laboratory, United Kingdom.

McLean, J (2001), Economic evaluation of road investment proposals: improved prediction models for road crash savings, AP-R184/01, Austroads, Sydney, Australia.

McMahon K and Dahdah M, (2008), The true cost of road crashes: valuing life and the cost of a serious injury, International Road Assessment Programme (iRAP), Basingstoke, United Kingdom.

Milligan, C, Kopp, A, Dahdah, S & Montufar, J, (2014), Value of a statistical life in road safety: A benefit-transfer function with risk-analysis guidance based on developing country data, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 71, 236-247.

New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA), (2011), High Risk Rural Roads Guide. New Zealand Transport Agency, Wellington, New Zealand.

New Zealand Transport Agency (NZTA), (2013), Economic evaluation manual (volume 2). Wellington, July 2013.

OECD/ITF (2012) Sharing Road Safety, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, France.

Ogden, K. W. (1996) Safer Roads: a Guide to road safety engineering, Avebury Technical, 516 p.

PIARC (2009) Catalogue of design safety problems and potential countermeasures, Report 2009R07EN, World Road Association, Paris, France.

PIARC, (2012), State of the practice for cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and resource allocation. Report 2012R24EN, World Road Association (PIARC), Paris, France.

PIARC, (2016), The Role of Road Engineering in Combatting Driver Distraction and Fatigue Road Safety Risks. Report 2016R24EN, World Road Association (PIARC), Paris, France.

PIARC, (2017), Vulnerable road users: Diagnosis of design and operational safety problems and potential countermeasures. Report 2016R34EN, World Road Association (PIARC), Paris, France.

Roberts, P & Turner, B, (2007), Estimating the crash reduction factor from multiple road engineering countermeasures, International road safety conference, Perth, Australia.

SafetyAnalyst Economic appraisal tool ( and Priority ranking tool (

Shen, J, Rodriguez, A, Gan, A, & Brady, P (2004), ‘Development and application of crash reduction factors: a state-of-the-practice survey of State Departments of Transportation’, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, 83rd, 2004, Washington, DC, USA, Transportation Research Board (TRB), Washington, DC.

Transport and Road Research Laboratory (1991) Towards safer roads in developing countries: A guide for planners and engineers, TRRL & Overseas Development Administration, Crowthorne.

Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), (1995), Costing road accidents in developing countries. Overseas Road Note 10. Crowthorne, UK.

Turner B and Comport L, (2010), Road safety engineering risk assessment part 4: treatment life for road safety measures. Austroads, Sydney, Australia.

Turner B & Smith G, (2013), Safe System Infrastructure: Implementation Issues in Low and Middle Income Countries. Research Report ARR 383, ARRB Group Ltd, Vermont South, Australia.

Turner, B, Tziotis, M, Cairney, P & Jurewicz, C (2009), Safe System Infrastructure – National Roundtable Report, Research Report ARR 370, ARRB Group Ltd, Vermont South, Australia.

Turner, D. S. and Hall, J.W. (1994) Severity indices for roadside features, NCHRP Synthesis of highway practice 202, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

Yannis, G, Evgenikos, P & Papadimitriou, E (2008), Best Practice for Cost Effective Road Safety Infrastructure Investments, Conference of European Directors of Roads, Paris, France.

Reference sources

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