Road Safety Manual
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4.9 References

Australian Transport Council (2009), National Road Safety Action Plan, Canberra, Australia.

Australian Transport Council (2011), National Road Safety Strategy 2011-2020, Canberra, Australia.

Austroads, (2012), Effectiveness of Road Safety Engineering Treatments, AP-R422-12, Austroads, Sydney, Australia.

Austroads, (2018), Towards Safe System Infrastructure: A compendium of Current Knowledge, AP-R560-18, Austroads. Sydney, Australia.

BITRE, (2012), Evaluation of the National Black Spot Program, Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics, Canberra, Australia.

Bliss, T & Breen, J (2009). Implementing the Recommendations of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. Country guidelines for the Conduct of Road Safety Management Capacity Reviews and the Specification of Lead Agency Reforms, Investment Strategies and Safe System Projects, Global Road Safety Facility World Bank, Washington DC

Bliss, T & Breen, J (2011).Improving Road Safety Performance: Lessons From International Experience. A resource paper prepared for the World Bank , Washington (unpublished).

Bliss, T & Breen, J (2013), Road Safety Management Capacity Reviews and Safe System Projects, Global Road Safety Facility, World Bank, Washington, DC.

Breen, J (2012), Managing for Ambitious Road Safety Results, 23rd Westminster Lecture on Road Safety, 2nd UN Lecture in the Decade of Action, Parliamentary Advisory Council for Transport safety (PACTS), November 2012, London.

Elvik, R, Vaa,T (2004), The Handbook of Road Safety Measures, TOI, Norway

Elvik, R, Christensen P, Amundsen A, (2004) Speed and Road Accidents, an evaluation of the Power Model, TOI, Norway

FHWA, (2013), CMF Clearinghouse website,, accessed 30th July - 2013.

Global Road Safety Partnership, Geneva, (2008) Speed management: a road safety manual for decision-makers and practitioners, Module 1.

ITF (2022), The Safe System Approach in Action, Research Report, OECD Publishing, Paris, France.

Job, RFS. & Mbugua, LW. (2020). Road Crash Trauma, Climate Change, Pollution and the Total Costs of Speed: Six graphs that tell the story. GRSF Note 2020 . I. Washington DC: Global Road Safety Facility, World Bank.

Kimber, R (2003), Traffic and Accidents: Are the Risks Too High? TRL, Lecture June 2003, Imperial College London.

Larsson, M., Candappa, N.L., and Corben, B.F., (2003), Flexible Barrier Systems Along High-Speed Roads – a Lifesaving Opportunity , Monash University Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

McInerney R, Turner B, Infrastructure: A key building block for a Safe System, The International Handbook of Road Safety, Monash University and FIA Foundation.

Ministry of Transport, (2010), Safer Journeys, New Zealand’s road safety strategy 2010–2020, NZ Ministry of Transport, New Zealand.

Norwegian Public Roads Administration, (2006) Vision, Strategy and Targets for Road Traffic Safety in Norway, 2006 – 2015,National Police Directorate, Directorate of Health and Social Welfare, Norwegian Council for Road Safety.

NZ Transport Agency (NZTA), (2011), High Risk Rural Roads Guide, New Zealand Transport Agency, Wellington, New Zealand.

OECD (2008), Towards Zero: Achieving Ambitious Road Safety Targets Through a Safe System Approach, OECD, Paris

OECD (2016), Zero Road Deaths and Serious Injuries: Leading a Paradigm Shift to a Safe System, OECD, Paris. 

PIARC (2012), Comparison of National Road Safety Policies and Plans, PIARC Technical Committee C.2 Safer Road Operations, Report 2012R31EN, The World Road Association, Paris.

Sliogeris J (1992), 110 kilometre per hour speed limit: evaluation of road safety effects, Report No. GR 92-8, VicRoads, Melbourne.

Stigson H, Kullgren A & Krafft M, (2011) Use of Car Crashes Resulting in Injuries To Identify System Weaknesses , Paper presented at the 22nd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). Washington DC, USA. DOT/NHTSA

Tingvall, C. (2005) The 7th European Transport Safety Lecture, Europe and its road safety vision – how far to zero? Swedish Road Administration.

Tingvall, C and Haworth, N (1999) Vision Zero - An ethical approach to safety and mobility, 6th ITE International Conference Road Safety & Traffic Enforcement: Beyond 2000, Melbourne.

Tylsoand Declaration (2007),

Western Australia Road Safety Council, (2009) Towards Zero – Road safety Strategy, To Reduce Road Trauma in Western Australia 2008-2020.

Wegman, F & Aarts, L (2006) Advancing Sustainable Safety: National Road Safety Outlook for 2005-2020, SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Leidschendam, The Netherlands.

WHO (2004) World Report on road traffic injury prevention, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

WHO (2013) Global Status Report on Road Safety, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Wramborg, P. (2005) A new approach to a safe and sustainable road structure and street design for urban areas. Proceedings of the Road Safety on Four Continents Conference, Warsaw, Poland.

Wundersitz LN, Baldock MRJ (2011), The relative contribution of system failures and extreme behaviour in South Australian crashes, CASR, Adelaide, Australia.

Reference sources

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